Workflow

GraphService objects

class py2neo.GraphService(profile=None, **settings)[source]

The GraphService class is the top-level accessor for an entire Neo4j graph database management system (DBMS). Within the py2neo object hierarchy, a GraphService contains one or more Graph objects in which data storage and retrieval activity chiefly occurs.

An explicit URI can be passed to the constructor:

>>> from py2neo import GraphService
>>> gs = GraphService("bolt://camelot.example.com:7687")

Alternatively, the default value of bolt://localhost:7687 is used:

>>> default_gs = GraphService()
>>> default_gs
<GraphService uri='bolt://localhost:7687'>

Note

Some attributes of this class available in earlier versions of py2neo are no longer available, specifically kernel_start_time, primitive_counts, store_creation_time, store_file_sizes and store_id, along with the query_jmx method. This is due to a change in Neo4j 4.0 relating to how certain system metadata is exposed. Replacement functionality may be reintroduced in a future py2neo release.

Changed in 2020.0: this class was formerly known as ‘Database’, but was renamed to avoid confusion with the concept of the same name introduced with the multi-database feature of Neo4j 4.0.

iter(graph_service)

Yield all named graphs.

For Neo4j 4.0 and above, this yields the names returned by a SHOW DATABASES query. For earlier versions, this yields no entries, since the one and only graph in these versions is not named.

New in version 2020.0.

graph_service[name]

Access a Graph by name.

New in version 2020.0.

property config

A dictionary of the configuration parameters used to configure Neo4j.

>>> gs.config['dbms.connectors.default_advertised_address']
'localhost'
property connector

The Connector providing communication for this graph service.

New in version 2020.0.

property default_graph

The default Graph exposed by this graph service.

property kernel_version

The Version of Neo4j running.

keys()[source]

Return a list of all Graph names exposed by this graph service.

New in version 2020.0.

property product

The product name.

property profile

The ConnectionProfile for which this graph service is configured. This attribute is simply a shortcut for connector.profile.

New in version 2020.0.

property system_graph

The SystemGraph exposed by this graph service.

New in version 2020.0.

property uri

The URI to which this graph service is connected. This attribute is simply a shortcut for connector.profile.uri.

Graph objects

class py2neo.Graph(profile=None, name=None, **settings)[source]

The Graph class provides a handle to an individual named graph database exposed by a Neo4j graph database service.

Connection details are provided using either a URI or a ConnectionProfile, plus individual settings, if required.

The name argument allows selection of a graph database by name. When working with Neo4j 4.0 and above, this can be any name defined in the system catalogue, a full list of which can be obtained through the Cypher SHOW DATABASES command. Passing None here will select the default database, as defined on the server. For earlier versions of Neo4j, the name must be set to None.

>>> from py2neo import Graph
>>> sales = Graph("bolt+s://g.example.com:7687", name="sales")
>>> sales.run("MATCH (c:Customer) RETURN c.name")
 c.name
---------------
 John Smith
 Amy Pond
 Rory Williams

The system graph, which is available in all 4.x+ product editions, can also be accessed via the SystemGraph class.

>>> from py2neo import SystemGraph
>>> sg = SystemGraph("bolt+s://g.example.com:7687")
>>> sg.call("dbms.security.listUsers")
 username | roles | flags
----------|-------|-------
 neo4j    |  null | []

In addition to the core connection details that can be passed to the constructor, the Graph class can accept several other settings:

Keyword

Description

Type

Default

user_agent

User agent to send for all connections

str

(depends on URI scheme)

max_connections

The maximum number of simultaneous connections permitted

int

40

Once obtained, the Graph instance provides direct or indirect access to most of the functionality available within py2neo.

auto(readonly=False)[source]

Create a new auto-commit Transaction.

Parameters

readonly – if True, will begin a readonly transaction, otherwise will begin as read-write

New in version 2020.0.

begin(readonly=False)[source]

Begin a new Transaction.

Parameters

readonly – if True, will begin a readonly transaction, otherwise will begin as read-write

Changed in version 2021.1: the ‘autocommit’ argument has been removed. Use the ‘auto’ method instead.

property call

Accessor for listing and calling procedures.

This property contains a ProcedureLibrary object tied to this graph, which provides links to Cypher procedures in the underlying implementation.

Calling a procedure requires only the regular Python function call syntax:

>>> g = Graph()
>>> g.call.dbms.components()
 name         | versions   | edition
--------------|------------|-----------
 Neo4j Kernel | ['3.5.12'] | community

The object returned from the call is a Cursor object, identical to that obtained from running a normal Cypher query, and can therefore be consumed in a similar way.

Procedure names can alternatively be supplied as a string:

>>> g.call["dbms.components"]()
 name         | versions   | edition
--------------|------------|-----------
 Neo4j Kernel | ['3.5.12'] | community

Using dir() or iter() on the call attribute will yield a list of available procedure names.

New in version 2020.0.

commit(tx)[source]

Commit a transaction.

New in version 2021.1.

create(subgraph)[source]

Run a create() operation within a Transaction.

Parameters

subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph

delete(subgraph)[source]

Run a delete() operation within an auto-commit Transaction. To delete only the relationships, use the separate() method.

Note that only entities which are bound to corresponding remote entities though the graph and identity attributes will trigger a deletion.

Parameters

subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph object

delete_all()[source]

Delete all nodes and relationships from this Graph.

Warning

This method will permanently remove all nodes and relationships from the graph and cannot be undone.

evaluate(cypher, parameters=None, **kwparameters)[source]

Run a evaluate() operation within an auto-commit Transaction.

Parameters
  • cypher – Cypher statement

  • parameters – dictionary of parameters

Returns

first value from the first record returned or None.

exists(subgraph)[source]

Run a exists() operation within an auto-commit Transaction.

Parameters

subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph object

Returns

match(nodes=None, r_type=None, limit=None)[source]

Match and return all relationships with specific criteria.

For example, to find all of Alice’s friends:

for rel in graph.match((alice, ), r_type="FRIEND"):
    print(rel.end_node["name"])
Parameters
  • nodes – Sequence or Set of start and end nodes (None means any node); a Set implies a match in any direction

  • r_type – type of relationships to match (None means any type)

  • limit – maximum number of relationships to match (None means unlimited)

match_one(nodes=None, r_type=None)[source]

Match and return one relationship with specific criteria.

Parameters
  • nodes – Sequence or Set of start and end nodes (None means any node); a Set implies a match in any direction

  • r_type – type of relationships to match (None means any type)

merge(subgraph, label=None, *property_keys)[source]

Run a merge() operation within an auto-commit Transaction.

The example code below shows a simple merge for a new relationship between two new nodes:

>>> from py2neo import Graph, Node, Relationship
>>> g = Graph()
>>> a = Node("Person", name="Alice", age=33)
>>> b = Node("Person", name="Bob", age=44)
>>> KNOWS = Relationship.type("KNOWS")
>>> g.merge(KNOWS(a, b), "Person", "name")

Following on, we then create a third node (of a different type) to which both the original nodes connect:

>>> c = Node("Company", name="ACME")
>>> c.__primarylabel__ = "Company"
>>> c.__primarykey__ = "name"
>>> WORKS_FOR = Relationship.type("WORKS_FOR")
>>> g.merge(WORKS_FOR(a, c) | WORKS_FOR(b, c))

For details of how the merge algorithm works, see the merge() method. Note that this is different to a Cypher MERGE.

Parameters
  • subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph object

  • label – label on which to match any existing nodes

  • property_keys – property keys on which to match any existing nodes

property name

The name of this graph.

New in version 2020.0.

property nodes

A NodeMatcher for this graph.

This can be used to find nodes that match given criteria:

>>> graph = Graph()
>>> graph.nodes[1234]
(_1234:Person {name: 'Alice'})
>>> graph.nodes.get(1234)
(_1234:Person {name: 'Alice'})
>>> graph.nodes.match("Person", name="Alice").first()
(_1234:Person {name: 'Alice'})

Nodes can also be efficiently counted using this attribute:

>>> len(graph.nodes)
55691
>>> len(graph.nodes.match("Person", age=33))
12
pull(subgraph)[source]

Pull data to one or more entities from their remote counterparts.

Parameters

subgraph – the collection of nodes and relationships to pull

push(subgraph)[source]

Push data from one or more entities to their remote counterparts.

Parameters

subgraph – the collection of nodes and relationships to push

query(cypher, parameters=None, timeout=None)[source]

Run a single readonly query within an auto-commit Transaction.

Parameters
  • cypher – Cypher statement

  • parameters – dictionary of parameters

  • timeout

Returns

Raises
  • TypeError – if the underlying connection profile does not support readonly transactions

  • ServiceUnavailable – if the query does not successfully complete

Refactored from read to query in version 2021.1

property relationships

A RelationshipMatcher for this graph.

This can be used to find relationships that match given criteria as well as efficiently count relationships.

rollback(tx)[source]

Rollback a transaction.

New in version 2021.1.

run(cypher, parameters=None, **kwparameters)[source]

Run a single read/write query within an auto-commit Transaction.

Parameters
  • cypher – Cypher statement

  • parameters – dictionary of parameters

  • kwparameters – extra parameters supplied as keyword arguments

Returns

schema = None

The Schema resource for this Graph.

separate(subgraph)[source]

Run a separate() operation within an auto-commit Transaction.

Note that only relationships which are bound to corresponding remote relationships though the graph and identity attributes will trigger a deletion.

Parameters

subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph

service = None

The GraphService to which this Graph belongs.

update(cypher, parameters=None, timeout=None)[source]

Call a function representing a transactional unit of work.

The function must always accept a Transaction object as its first argument. Additional arguments can be passed though the args and kwargs arguments of this method.

The unit of work may be called multiple times if earlier attempts fail due to connectivity or other transient errors. As such, the function should have no non-idempotent side effects.

Parameters
  • cypher – cypher string or transaction function containing a unit of work

  • parameters – cypher parameter map or function arguments

  • timeout

Raises

WriteServiceUnavailable – if the update does not successfully complete

SystemGraph objects

class py2neo.SystemGraph(profile=None, **settings)[source]

A subclass of Graph that provides access to the system database for the remote DBMS. This is only available in Neo4j 4.0 and above.

New in version 2020.0.

Schema objects

class py2neo.Schema(graph)[source]

The schema resource attached to a Graph instance.

create_index(label, *property_keys)[source]

Create a schema index for a label and property key combination.

create_uniqueness_constraint(label, property_key)[source]

Create a node uniqueness constraint for a given label and property key.

While indexes support the use of composite keys, unique constraints may only be tied to a single property key.

drop_index(label, *property_keys)[source]

Remove label index for a given property key.

drop_uniqueness_constraint(label, property_key)[source]

Remove the node uniqueness constraint for a given label and property key.

get_indexes(label)[source]

Fetch a list of indexed property keys for a label.

get_uniqueness_constraints(label)[source]

Fetch a list of unique constraints for a label. Each constraint is the name of a single property key.

property node_labels

The set of node labels currently defined within the graph.

property relationship_types

The set of relationship types currently defined within the graph.

Transaction objects

class py2neo.Transaction(manager, autocommit=False, readonly=False)[source]

Logical context for one or more graph operations.

Transaction objects are typically constructed by the Graph.auto() and Graph.begin() methods. Likewise, the Graph.commit() and Graph.rollback() methods can be used to finish a transaction.

graph

Graph to which this transaction belongs.

readonly

True if this is a readonly transaction, False otherwise.

Cypher execution

The run(), evaluate() and update() methods are used to execute Cypher queries within the transactional context. Each is intended for use with a particular kind of query: run() for general-purpose query execution, evaluate() for retrieving single aggregation values and update() for executing Cypher that has no return value.

evaluate(cypher, parameters=None, **kwparameters)[source]

Execute a single Cypher query and return the value from the first column of the first record.

Parameters
  • cypher – Cypher statement

  • parameters – dictionary of parameters

Returns

single return value or None

run(cypher, parameters=None, **kwparameters)[source]

Send a Cypher query to the server for execution and return a Cursor for navigating its result.

Parameters
  • cypher – Cypher query

  • parameters – dictionary of parameters

Returns

Cursor object

update(cypher, parameters=None, **kwparameters)[source]

Execute a single Cypher statement and discard any result returned.

Parameters
  • cypher – Cypher statement

  • parameters – dictionary of parameters

Subgraph operations

The methods below all operate on Subgraph objects, such as nodes and relationships.

create(subgraph)[source]

Create remote nodes and relationships that correspond to those in a local subgraph. Any entities in subgraph that are already bound to remote entities will remain unchanged, those which are not will become bound to their newly-created counterparts.

For example:

>>> from py2neo import Graph, Node, Relationship
>>> g = Graph()
>>> tx = g.begin()
>>> a = Node("Person", name="Alice")
>>> tx.create(a)
>>> b = Node("Person", name="Bob")
>>> ab = Relationship(a, "KNOWS", b)
>>> tx.create(ab)
>>> tx.commit()
>>> g.exists(ab)
True
Parameters

subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other creatable object

delete(subgraph)[source]

Delete the remote nodes and relationships that correspond to those in a local subgraph. To delete only the relationships, use the separate() method.

Parameters

subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph

exists(subgraph)[source]

Determine whether one or more entities all exist within the graph. Note that if any nodes or relationships in subgraph are not bound to remote counterparts, this method will return False.

Parameters

subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph

Returns

True if all entities exist remotely, False otherwise

merge(subgraph, primary_label=None, primary_key=None)[source]

Create or update the nodes and relationships of a local subgraph in the remote database. Note that the functionality of this operation is not strictly identical to the Cypher MERGE clause, although there is some overlap.

Each node and relationship in the local subgraph is merged independently, with nodes merged first and relationships merged second.

For each node, the merge is carried out by comparing that node with a potential remote equivalent on the basis of a single label and property value. If no remote match is found, a new node is created; if a match is found, the labels and properties of the remote node are updated. The label and property used for comparison are determined by the primary_label and primary_key arguments but may be overridden for individual nodes by the of __primarylabel__ and __primarykey__ attributes on the node itself.

For each relationship, the merge is carried out by comparing that relationship with a potential remote equivalent on the basis of matching start and end nodes plus relationship type. If no remote match is found, a new relationship is created; if a match is found, the properties of the remote relationship are updated.

Parameters
  • subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph object

  • primary_label – label on which to match any existing nodes

  • primary_key – property key(s) on which to match any existing nodes

pull(subgraph)[source]

Update local entities from their remote counterparts.

For any nodes and relationships that exist in both the local Subgraph and the remote Graph, pull properties and node labels into the local copies. This operation does not create or delete any entities.

Parameters

subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph

push(subgraph)[source]

Update remote entities from their local counterparts.

For any nodes and relationships that exist in both the local Subgraph and the remote Graph, push properties and node labels into the remote copies. This operation does not create or delete any entities.

Parameters

subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph

separate(subgraph)[source]

Delete the remote relationships that correspond to those in a local subgraph. This leaves any nodes untouched.

Parameters

subgraph – a Node, Relationship or other Subgraph

Deprecated methods

The commit() and rollback() methods are deprecated. Instead, the similarly-named methods on the parent Graph should be used, with this transaction as an argument.

commit(**kwargs)

Commit the transaction.

rollback(**kwargs)

Roll back the current transaction, undoing all actions previously taken.